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Investigating design: A comparison of manifest and latent approaches

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)441-472
Number of pages32
JournalDesign Studies
Issue number5
DatePublished - Sep 2014


This paper contributes to the on-going focus on improving design research methods, by exploring and synthesising two key interrelated research approaches manifest and latent. These approaches are widely used individually in design research, however, this paper represents the first work bringing them together and explicitly investigating their complementarity in the design domain. This is realised using an example artificial observation study. In addition to discussing underlying relationships between the approaches, this paper identifies key opportunities for improving design research methods by more explicitly combining both manifest and latent elements. Finally, a number of combinatory approaches are proposed based on a conceptual framework. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Research areas

  • research methods, design research, design science, latent and manifest approaches, INFORMATION-SEEKING BEHAVIOR, ENGINEERING DESIGN, CREATIVITY, PSYCHOLOGY, KNOWLEDGE, THINKING, TASKS

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