Investigating the X-ray time-lags in PG 1244+026 using an extended corona model

Poemwai Chainakun, Andrew Young

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)
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We present an extended corona model based on ray-tracing simulations to investigate X-ray time lags in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). This model consists of two axial point sources illuminating an accretion disc that produce the reverberation lags. These lags are due to the time delays between the directly observed and reflection photons and are associated with the light-travel time between the source and the disc, so they allow us to probe the disc-corona geometry. We assume the variations of two X-ray sources are triggered by the same primary variations, but allow the two sources to respond in different ways (i.e. having different source responses). The variations of each source induce a delayed accretion disc response and the total lags consist of a combination of both source and disc responses. We show that the extended corona model can reproduce both the low-frequency hard and high-frequency soft (reverberation) lags. Fitting the model to the timing data of PG 1244+026 reveals the hard and soft X-ray sources at ~6rg and ~11rg, respectively. The upper source produces small amounts of reflection and can be interpreted as a relativistic jet, or outflowing blob, whose emission is beamed away from the disc. This explains the observed lag-energy in which there is no soft lag at energies <1 keV as they are diluted by the soft continuum of the upper source. Finally, our models suggest that the fluctuations propagating between the two sources of PG 1244+026 are possible but only at near the speed of light.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3965-3976
Number of pages12
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number4
Early online date17 Nov 2016
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2017


  • accretion
  • accretion discs – black hole physics – galaxies: active – galaxies: individual: PG 1244+026 – X-rays: galaxies


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