The mechanisms of post-weld rolling and how it reduces and eliminates residual stress and distortion are poorly understood. Finite element analysis was applied to two different methods of rolling: rolling the weld bead directly with a single roller and rolling beside the weld bead with a dual flat roller. The models showed that both rolling techniques were able to induce compressive stress into the weld region, which increased with rolling load. The distribution of stress was sensitive to the coefficients of friction between the workpiece and the roller and the backing bar. High friction coefficients concentrated the plastic deformation and compressive stress within the centre of the weld bead. Distortion can be eliminated by rolling; however, the experiments indicated that this was only achieved when applied to the weld bead directly.
- Residual stress