Projects per year
Diamine-mediated α-deprotonation of O-alkyl carbamates or benzoates with alkyllithium reagents, trapping of the carban-ion with organoboron compounds, and 1,2-metallate rearrangement of the resulting boronate complex are the primary steps by which organoboron compounds can be stereoselectively homologated. Although the final step can be easily monitored by 11B NMR spectroscopy, the first two steps, which are typically carried out at cryogenic temperatures, are less well understood owing to the requirement for specialized analytical techniques. Investigation of these steps by in-situ IR spectroscopy has provided invaluable data for optimizing the homologation reactions of organoboron compounds. Although the deprotonation of benzoates in non-coordinating solvents is faster than that in ethereal solvents, the deproto-nation of carbamates shows the opposite trend, a difference that has its origin in the propensity of carbamates to form inactive parasitic complexes with the diamine-ligated alkyllithium reagent. Borylation of bulky diamine-ligated lithiated species in toluene is extremely slow, owing to the requirement for initial complexation of the oxygen atoms of the diol ligand on boron with the lithium ion prior to boron–lithium exchange. However, ethereal solvent, or very small amounts of THF, facilitate precomplexation through initial displacement of the bulky diamines coordinated to the lithium ion. Comparing the carbonyl stretching frequencies of boronates derived from pinacol boronic esters with those derived from trialkylboranes, suggests that the displaced lithium ion is residing on the pinacol oxygen atoms and the benzo-ate/carbamate carbonyl group, respectively, explaining, at least in part, the faster 1,2-metallate rearrangements of boro-nates derived from the trialkylboranes.
- BCS and TECS CDTs