Traditionally, bistable laminates have been developed from prepreg plies stacked up together to achieve a layup which is either constant or discretely varying over the planform of the laminate. Laminates with discrete variation in layup are, in particular, of interest as they offer the prospect of easier blending. Moreover, such laminates can be manufactured to have Variable Angle Tows (VATs) in a ply using a tow-steering technique, doing so, ensures fibre-continuity and may impart additional structural strength. This paper presents an approach to develop finite element (FE) models which can accurately predict the cured shape(s) of tow-steered laminates that are designed to be bistable. Manufactured laminates are characterised using microscopy and resin burn-off tests to identify resin-rich layers, ply-thicknesses and fibre volume fractions (V f) - which are then translated into FE models. Presented data highlights the influence of the manufacturing process in the thermally induced bistable behaviour of tow-steered laminates. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jun 2012|
- A. Polymer-matrix composites (PMCs)
- B. Residual stress
- C. Finite element analysis (FEA)
- E. Stitching