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Investigations into Frost Flower Physical Characteristics and the C-Band Scattering Response

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Investigations into Frost Flower Physical Characteristics and the C-Band Scattering Response. / Isleifson, Dustin; Galley, Ryan J.; Firoozy, Nariman; Landy, Jack C.; Barber, David G.

In: Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, No. 7, 991, 07.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Isleifson, D, Galley, RJ, Firoozy, N, Landy, JC & Barber, DG 2018, 'Investigations into Frost Flower Physical Characteristics and the C-Band Scattering Response', Remote Sensing, vol. 10, no. 7, 991. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10070991

APA

Isleifson, D., Galley, R. J., Firoozy, N., Landy, J. C., & Barber, D. G. (2018). Investigations into Frost Flower Physical Characteristics and the C-Band Scattering Response. Remote Sensing, 10(7), [991]. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10070991

Vancouver

Author

Isleifson, Dustin ; Galley, Ryan J. ; Firoozy, Nariman ; Landy, Jack C. ; Barber, David G. / Investigations into Frost Flower Physical Characteristics and the C-Band Scattering Response. In: Remote Sensing. 2018 ; Vol. 10, No. 7.

Bibtex

@article{d4f61b1657ea47658a2d6e26c3465e5b,
title = "Investigations into Frost Flower Physical Characteristics and the C-Band Scattering Response",
abstract = "A dedicated study on the physical characteristics and C-band scattering response of frost-flower-covered sea ice was performed in an artificial sea ice mesocosm over a 36-h period in January 2017. Meteorological conditions were observed and recorded automatically at the facility when the sea ice grew and frost flowers formed while the C-band scattering measurements were conducted continuously over a range of incidence angles. Surface roughness was characterized using a LiDAR. During the experiment, frost flowers did not initially form on the extremely smooth ice surface even though suitable meteorological conditions prevailed during their development (low air temperature, low near-surface wind speed, and high near-surface relative humidity). This provides evidence that both the presence of (i) liquid brine at the surface and (ii) raised nodules as nucleation points are required to enable frost flower initiation. As the ice thickened, we observed that raised nodules gradually appeared, frost flowers formed, and flowers subsequently spread to cover the surface over a six-hour period. In contrast to previous experiments, the frost flower layer did not become visibly saturated with liquid brine. The C-band scattering measurements exhibited increases as high as 14.8 dB (vertical polarization) in response to the frost flower formation with low incidence angles (i.e., 25°) showing the largest dynamic range. Co-polarization ratios responded to the physical and thermodynamic changes associated with the frost flower formation process. Our results indicate that brine expulsion at the sea ice surface and frost flower salination can have substantial temporal variability, which can be detected by scatterometer time-series measurements. This work contributes towards the operational satellite image interpretation for Arctic waters by improving our understanding of the highly variable C-band microwave scattering properties of young sea ice types.",
keywords = "Arctic, Frost flowers, LiDAR, Microwave, NRCS, Radar, Scatterometer, Sea ice, Surface roughness",
author = "Dustin Isleifson and Galley, {Ryan J.} and Nariman Firoozy and Landy, {Jack C.} and Barber, {David G.}",
year = "2018",
month = "7",
doi = "10.3390/rs10070991",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
journal = "Remote Sensing",
issn = "2072-4292",
publisher = "MDPI AG",
number = "7",

}

RIS - suitable for import to EndNote

TY - JOUR

T1 - Investigations into Frost Flower Physical Characteristics and the C-Band Scattering Response

AU - Isleifson, Dustin

AU - Galley, Ryan J.

AU - Firoozy, Nariman

AU - Landy, Jack C.

AU - Barber, David G.

PY - 2018/7

Y1 - 2018/7

N2 - A dedicated study on the physical characteristics and C-band scattering response of frost-flower-covered sea ice was performed in an artificial sea ice mesocosm over a 36-h period in January 2017. Meteorological conditions were observed and recorded automatically at the facility when the sea ice grew and frost flowers formed while the C-band scattering measurements were conducted continuously over a range of incidence angles. Surface roughness was characterized using a LiDAR. During the experiment, frost flowers did not initially form on the extremely smooth ice surface even though suitable meteorological conditions prevailed during their development (low air temperature, low near-surface wind speed, and high near-surface relative humidity). This provides evidence that both the presence of (i) liquid brine at the surface and (ii) raised nodules as nucleation points are required to enable frost flower initiation. As the ice thickened, we observed that raised nodules gradually appeared, frost flowers formed, and flowers subsequently spread to cover the surface over a six-hour period. In contrast to previous experiments, the frost flower layer did not become visibly saturated with liquid brine. The C-band scattering measurements exhibited increases as high as 14.8 dB (vertical polarization) in response to the frost flower formation with low incidence angles (i.e., 25°) showing the largest dynamic range. Co-polarization ratios responded to the physical and thermodynamic changes associated with the frost flower formation process. Our results indicate that brine expulsion at the sea ice surface and frost flower salination can have substantial temporal variability, which can be detected by scatterometer time-series measurements. This work contributes towards the operational satellite image interpretation for Arctic waters by improving our understanding of the highly variable C-band microwave scattering properties of young sea ice types.

AB - A dedicated study on the physical characteristics and C-band scattering response of frost-flower-covered sea ice was performed in an artificial sea ice mesocosm over a 36-h period in January 2017. Meteorological conditions were observed and recorded automatically at the facility when the sea ice grew and frost flowers formed while the C-band scattering measurements were conducted continuously over a range of incidence angles. Surface roughness was characterized using a LiDAR. During the experiment, frost flowers did not initially form on the extremely smooth ice surface even though suitable meteorological conditions prevailed during their development (low air temperature, low near-surface wind speed, and high near-surface relative humidity). This provides evidence that both the presence of (i) liquid brine at the surface and (ii) raised nodules as nucleation points are required to enable frost flower initiation. As the ice thickened, we observed that raised nodules gradually appeared, frost flowers formed, and flowers subsequently spread to cover the surface over a six-hour period. In contrast to previous experiments, the frost flower layer did not become visibly saturated with liquid brine. The C-band scattering measurements exhibited increases as high as 14.8 dB (vertical polarization) in response to the frost flower formation with low incidence angles (i.e., 25°) showing the largest dynamic range. Co-polarization ratios responded to the physical and thermodynamic changes associated with the frost flower formation process. Our results indicate that brine expulsion at the sea ice surface and frost flower salination can have substantial temporal variability, which can be detected by scatterometer time-series measurements. This work contributes towards the operational satellite image interpretation for Arctic waters by improving our understanding of the highly variable C-band microwave scattering properties of young sea ice types.

KW - Arctic

KW - Frost flowers

KW - LiDAR

KW - Microwave

KW - NRCS

KW - Radar

KW - Scatterometer

KW - Sea ice

KW - Surface roughness

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85050505837&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/rs10070991

DO - 10.3390/rs10070991

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85050505837

VL - 10

JO - Remote Sensing

JF - Remote Sensing

SN - 2072-4292

IS - 7

M1 - 991

ER -