The high regioselectivity associated with the iridium-catalysed borylation of pyridones has been exploited to provide a very direct and efficient entry to C(10) doubly substituted CC4 variants of cytisine. Two approaches have been evaluated based on (i) C-H activation of cytisine (or an N-substituted derivative) followed by N-alkylation (to enable dimer formation) and (ii) direct C-H activation and borylation of CC4 itself. Both approaches provide access to C(10)-functionalized CC4 derivatives, but direct borylation of CC4 allows for a wider range of functional group interconversions to be tolerated.
- C-H functionalization
- iridium-catalyzed borylation