Is Amyloid-beta an Innocent Bystander and Marker in Alzheimer's Disease? Is the Liability of Multivalent Cation Homeostasis and its Influence on Amyloid-beta Function the Real Mechanism?

Arash ManafiRad, Farshad Farzadfar, Laleh Habibi, Morteza Azhdarzadeh, Haniyeh Aghaverdi, Khadijeh H. Tehrani, Mina Lotfi, Patrick G. Kehoe, Ali Sheidaei, Anoosheh Ghasemian, Ehsan Rezaei Darzi, Ramin Mahmoodi, Morteza Mahmoudi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Two decades of the amyloid-beta (A beta) hypothesis in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the prominence of A beta-targeting strategies have yet to meet the levels of original expectation. Disappointing results in numerous Phase II/III studies have called for a re-examination of the validity of the A beta-targeting approaches as an intervention strategy in AD. The mid-life onset of chronic conditions (e. g., hypertension, diabetes, insulin intolerance, and depression nominated as risk factors for the later development of AD) points to the possibility that each condition could involve mechanisms, which while relatively modest over a short-term, could have significant accumulative effects. What may also not be fully appreciated is that a number of these conditions involve potential disturbances to multivalent cations (MC) levels through various mechanisms such as autophagy, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Furthermore, some MCs have intimate associations with the mechanisms by which A beta pathology manifests. Considering various lines of evidence and incorporating statistical analysis on Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) data of both causes of and prevalence of multifactorial risk factors in different world regions, we propose an MC hypothesis for AD. More specifically, we suggest that MC imbalance marks many chronic conditions and because of their involvement with A beta pathology, could reflect that A beta may be a vital manifestation and marker of underlying MC imbalance. Thus, careful targeting of MC imbalance may provide an alternative or complementary interventional approach to current A beta treatment strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-85
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
Volume42
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2014

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • amyloid-beta pathology
  • cellular integrity
  • chronic conditions
  • lifestyle
  • multivalent cations homeostasis
  • risk factors
  • BLOOD-BRAIN-BARRIER
  • TARGETING ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS
  • GLYCOGEN-SYNTHASE KINASE-3
  • PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS
  • GLOBAL DNA METHYLATION
  • OXIDATIVE STRESS
  • ACUTE HYPERTENSION
  • COGNITIVE DECLINE
  • DIABETES-MELLITUS
  • OLDER-ADULTS

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