Is zjudge a better prime for JUDGE than zudge is? A new evaluation of current orthographic coding models

Stephen J Lupker*, Giacomo Spinelli, Colin J Davis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
198 Downloads (Pure)


Three masked priming paradigms, the conventional masked priming lexical decision task (Forster & Davis, 1984), the sandwich priming task (Lupker & Davis, 2009) and the masked priming same-different task (Norris & Kinoshita, 2008) were used to investigate priming for a given target (e.g., JUDGE) from primes created by either adding a letter to the beginning of the target (e.g., zjudge) or replacing the target’s initial letter (e.g., zudge). Virtually all models of orthographic coding that allow calculation of orthographic similarity measures predict that zjudge should be the better prime because zjudge contains all the letters in JUDGE in their correct order whereas zudge does not. Nonetheless, Adelman et al.’s (2014) megastudy data indicated no difference in the effectiveness of these two prime types. The present experiments provide additional support for the conclusion of no difference between these two prime types with the only observed difference being a small zudge prime advantage in Experiment 1b (sandwich priming). These results suggest that models of orthographic coding/word recognition may be well served by allowing inconsistent information (e.g., the “z” in both zjudge and zudge indicates that the presented prime is not JUDGE) to be given considerable weight during the orthographic coding/word recognition process.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance
Publication statusPublished - 6 Aug 2020

Structured keywords

  • Cognitive Science
  • Language


  • orthographic coding models
  • masked priming
  • lexical decision


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