Previous studies have described a range of Klossiella species parasitic in marsupial hosts. Klossiella quimrensis is the etiologic agent of renal coccidiosis in the peramelid marsupial hosts Isoodon obesulus and Perameles gunnii in Eastern Australia, but there is no previous report of klossiellosis in Western Australian peramelids. This study describes klossiellosis diagnosed by histology of renal tissue sections collected during necropsy of 20 Perameles bougainville between 2000 and 2005. Sporonts, sporoblasts, and macrogametes were identified within parasitophorous vacuoles of epithelial cells located near the renal corticomedullary junction. The prevalence of renal coccidiosis in P. bougainville diagnosed by renal histology is estimated at 30%. Only a single unsporulated sporocyst was detected by examination of cystocentesis-collected urine, indicating that microscopic evaluation of urine samples is an insensitive diagnostic test for detection of K. quimrensis in P. bougainville. This infection in P. bougainville is indirectly associated with mild multifocal interstitial lymphohistiocytic nephritis and is likely to be only minimally pathogenic in otherwise healthy individuals. Our study also extends the host and geographic range of K. quimrensis to include P. bougainville and Western Australia.