OBJECTIVES: Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) have been increasingly reported in the UK since 2003. We analysed patient and isolate data for KPC-positive bacteria confirmed by the national reference laboratory from UK laboratories from August 2003 to August 2014, excluding North-West England, where the epidemiology has previously been studied.
METHODS: MICs were determined by BSAC agar dilution. Carbapenem-resistant isolates lacking imipenem/EDTA synergy were tested by PCR for blaKPC. MLST and blaKPC sequencing were performed on a subset of isolates. Plasmid analysis was performed by transformation, PCR-based replicon typing and, in some cases, whole-plasmid sequencing. Patient data provided by the sending laboratories were reviewed.
RESULTS: Two hundred and ten isolates with KPC enzymes were submitted from 71 UK laboratories outside North-West England, representing 160 patients. All were Enterobacteriaceae, predominantly K. pneumoniae (82%; 173/210), and most (91%; 191/210) were from hospitalized patients. Analysis of 100 isolates identified blaKPC-2 (62%), blaKPC-3 (30%) and blaKPC-4 (8%). Clonal group (CG) 258 was dominant among K. pneumoniae (64%; 54/84), but 21 unrelated STs were also identified. Plasmid analysis identified a diverse range of plasmids representing >11 different replicon types and found in multiple STs and species. Most (34/35) plasmids with IncFIB/FIIK replicons exhibited >99% sequence identity to pKpQIL.
CONCLUSIONS: KPC enzymes are increasingly detected in Enterobacteriaceae in the UK, albeit without the major outbreaks seen in North-West England. K. pneumoniae CG258 are the dominant hosts, but plasmid spread plays a major role in KPC dissemination between other K. pneumoniae STs and enterobacterial species.
- Anti-Bacterial Agents
- Bacterial Proteins
- Enterobacteriaceae Infections
- Microbial Sensitivity Tests
- Middle Aged
- Multilocus Sequence Typing
- Polymerase Chain Reaction
- Sequence Analysis, DNA
- United Kingdom
- Journal Article
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural