Liquid Viruses by Nanoscale Engineering of Capsid Surfaces

Avinash J. Patil, Nina McGrath, J. Elaine Barclay, David J. Evans, Helmut Coelfen, Ian Manners, Adam W. Perriman, Stephen Mann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


Surface engineering of plant virus capsids via cationization (1) and stoichiometric coupling of a polymer surfactant coronal layer (2) produces a highly concentrated, solvent-free liquid virus at 28 degrees C. These ionic bionanoconstructs are viscoelastic, retain plant infectivity and can be dispersed in a range of organic solvents for aerosol delivery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4557-4563
Number of pages7
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number33
Publication statusPublished - 28 Aug 2012


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