LoCKAmp: lab-on-PCB technology for <3 minute virus genetic detection

Sotirios Papamatthaiou, James Boxall-Clasby, Edward J A Douglas, Pawel Jajesniak, Hadrien Peyret, June Mercer-Chalmers, Varun K S Kumar, George P Lomonossoff, Julien Reboud, Maisem Laabei, Jonathan M Cooper, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Despina Moschou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The recent COVID-19 outbreak highlighted the need for lab-on-chip diagnostic technology fit for real-life deployment in the field. Existing bottlenecks in multistep analytical microsystem integration and upscalable, standardized fabrication techniques delayed the large-scale deployment of lab-on-chip solutions during the outbreak, throughout a global diagnostic test shortage. This study presents a technology that has the potential to address these issues by redeploying and repurposing the ubiquitous printed circuit board (PCB) technology and manufacturing infrastructure. We demonstrate the first commercially manufactured, miniaturised lab-on-PCB device for loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) genetic detection of SARS-CoV-2. The system incorporates a mass-manufactured, continuous-flow PCB chip with ultra-low cost fluorescent detection circuitry, rendering it the only continuous-flow μLAMP platform with off-the-shelf optical detection components. Ultrafast, SARS-CoV-2 RNA amplification in wastewater samples was demonstrated within 2 min analysis, at concentrations as low as 17 gc μL-1. We further demonstrate our device operation by detecting SARS-CoV-2 in 20 human nasopharyngeal swab samples, without the need for any RNA extraction or purification. This renders the presented miniaturised nucleic-acid amplification-based diagnostic test the fastest reported SARS-CoV-2 genetic detection platform, in a practical implementation suitable for deployment in the field. This technology can be readily extended to the detection of alternative pathogens or genetic targets for a very broad range of applications and matrices. LoCKAmp lab-on-PCB chips are currently mass-manufactured in a commercial, ISO-compliant PCB factory, at a small-scale production cost of £2.50 per chip. Thus, with this work, we demonstrate a high technology-readiness-level lab-on-chip-based genetic detection system, successfully benchmarked against standard analytical techniques both for wastewater and nasopharyngeal swab SARS-CoV-2 detection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4400-4412
Number of pages13
JournalLab on a Chip
Issue number20
Early online date7 Sept 2023
Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2023


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