Longitudinal electrocardiographic evaluation of dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease

J López-Alvarez, A Boswood, W Moonarmart, M J Hezzell, N Lotter, J Elliott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Increased heart rate (HR) and decreased heart rate variability (HRV) are evident in some dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD).

OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the factors influencing HR and HRV (assessed by the vasovagal tonus index; VVTI) and their change over time in dogs with DMVD.

ANIMALS: Client-owned dogs (n = 257) with DMVD recruited from first opinion practice.

METHODS: Prospective longitudinal follow-up at six-monthly intervals of dogs with DMVD. Dogs followed up for at least 18 months (n = 102) were grouped according to their outcome as dogs dying/euthanized because of cardiac disease (n = 28; Group 1), noncardiac disease (n = 40; Group 2) and dogs alive (n = 34; Group 3). HR and VVTI were measured on 1-minute ECG recordings. Repeated measures linear models were constructed to investigate the factors that influence HR and VVTI and their changes over time.

RESULTS: Heart rate and VVTI were affected by disease severity and were different in Cavaliers compared to other breeds. Group 1 and Group 2 dogs underwent an increase in HR and decrease in VVTI, evident at least 18 months before death. Group 1 had a further decrease in VVTI followed by an increase in HR approximately 1 year and 6 months before death, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Dogs with DMVD have an increase in HR and decrease in HRV over a year before death, with greater changes in those dogs dying/euthanized because of cardiac disease. Both HR and VVTI can potentially be regarded as biomarkers for all-cause mortality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)393-400
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume28
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Feb 2014

Keywords

  • Animals
  • Disease Progression
  • Dog Diseases
  • Dogs
  • Electrocardiography
  • Female
  • Heart
  • Heart Rate
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Mitral Valve
  • Mitral Valve Insufficiency

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