Magma storage conditions beneath Dabbahu Volcano (Ethiopia) constrained by petrology, seismicity and satellite geodesy

L. Field*, J. Blundy, R. A. Brooker, T. Wright, G. Yirgu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A variety of methods exist to constrain sub-volcanic storage conditions of magmas. Petrological, seismological and satellite geodetic methods are integrated to determine storage conditions of peralkaline magmas beneath Dabbahu Volcano, Afar, Ethiopia. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis of volatile contents in melt inclusions trapped within phenocrysts of alkali feldspar, clinopyroxene and olivine from pantellerite obsidians representing the youngest eruptive phase (<8 ka) show H2O contents a parts per thousand currency sign5.8 wt.% and CO2 contents generally below 500 ppm, although rarely as high as 1,500 ppm. Volatile saturation pressures (at 679-835A degrees C) are in the range 43-207 MPa, consistent with published experimental data for similar pantellerites, which show that the phenocryst assemblage of alkali feldspar + cpx + aenigmatite +/- ilmenite is stable at 100 to 150 MPa. Inferred magma storage depths for these historic eruptions are similar to 1-5 km below sea-level, consistent with the depths of earthquakes, associated with magma chamber deflation following a dyke intrusion in the period Oct 2005-Apr 2006. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data for the same period reveal a broad similar to 20 km diameter area of uplift. Modelling of different geometries reveals that a series of stacked sills over a 1-5 km depth range best matches the InSAR data. The consistency of depth estimates based on petrological study of ancient eruptions and the seismicity, inflation and deflation of Dabbahu observed in relation to the dyking event of 2005, suggest a small but vertically extensive and potentially long-lived magma storage region.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)981-1004
Number of pages24
JournalBulletin of Volcanology
Volume74
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2012

Keywords

  • Melt inclusions
  • Afar
  • Magma storage
  • Dabbahu
  • Volatiles
  • InSAR
  • Peralkaline
  • KENYA RIFT-VALLEY
  • MOUNT ST-HELENS
  • MELT INCLUSIONS
  • PERALKALINE RHYOLITES
  • AFAR RIFT
  • RADAR INTERFEROMETRY
  • CONTINENTAL RUPTURE
  • CRUSTAL STRUCTURE
  • DYKE INTRUSIONS
  • ALKALI-FELDSPAR

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