Mapping the genetic and environmental aetiology of autistic traits in Sweden and the United Kingdom

Zoe E Reed*, Henrik Larsson, Claire M A Haworth , Dheeraj Rai, Sebastian Lundström, Angelica Ronald, Abraham Reichenberg, Paul Lichtenstein, Oliver S.P. Davis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

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Background: Autistic traits are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors, and are known to vary geographically in prevalence. But to what extent does their aetiology also vary from place to place?

Methods: We applied a novel spatial approach to data on autistic traits from two large twin studies, the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS; N=16,677, including 8,307 twin pairs) and the Twins Early Development Study in the UK (TEDS; N=11,594, including 5,796 twin pairs), to explore how the influence of nature and nurture on autistic traits varies from place to place.

Results: We present maps of gene- and environment- by geography interactions in Sweden and the United Kingdom (UK), showing geographical variation in both genetic and environmental influences across the two countries. In Sweden genetic influences appear higher in the far south and in a band running across the centre of the country. Environmental influences appear greatest in the south and north, with reduced environmental influence across the central band. In the UK genetic influences appear greater in the south, particularly in more central southern areas and the southeast, the Midlands and the north of England. Environmental influences appear greatest in the south and east of the UK, with less influence in the north and the west.

Conclusions: We hope this systematic approach to identifying aetiological interactions will inspire research to examine a wider range of previously unknown environmental influences on the aetiology of autistic traits. By doing so, we will gain greater understanding of how these environments draw out or mask genetic predisposition and interact with other environmental influences in the development of autistic traits.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry Advances
Early online date13 Oct 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 13 Oct 2021


  • Autism
  • Genetics
  • Environment
  • Geographical variation
  • TEDS


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