Measurements in swirling spray flames at blow-off

Ruoyang Yuan, James Kariuki, Epaminondas Mastorakos*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)
309 Downloads (Pure)


Various characteristics of swirling spray flames of ethanol, n-heptane, n-decane, and n-dodecane have been measured at conditions far from and close to blow-off using phase Doppler anemometry and OH* chemiluminescence, OH-planar laser-induced fluorescence, and Mie scattering at 5 kHz. The blow-off transient has also been examined. The OH* showed that the two main heat release regions lie around the spray jet at the inner recirculation zone and along the outer shear layer between the inner recirculation zone and the annular air jet. The heat release region is shortened and more attached as the flame approached blow-off. Mie images and phase Doppler anemometry data showed a wider dispersion of the ethanol spray compared to the other fuels. Similar spatial distributions of the Sauter mean diameter were observed for the four fuels for identical flow conditions, with the Sauter mean diameter value increasing with decreasing fuel volatility, but with the exception of significant presence of droplets in the nominally hollow cone for the ethanol spray. The OH-planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements showed an intermittent lift-off from the corner of the bluff body and the average lift-off height decreased with increasing air velocity, with less extinction along the inner flame branch especially for the heavier fuels. At the blow-off conditions, local extinctions appeared at both flame branches. The blow-off process followed a gradual reduction of the size of the flame, with the less volatile fuels showing a more severe flame area reduction compared to the condition far from blow-off. The average blow-off duration, τext, calculated from the evolution of the area-integrated OH* signal, was a few tens of milliseconds and for all conditions investigated the ratio τext/(D/Ub) /(D/UB) was around 11, but with large scatter. The measurements provide useful information for validation of combustion models focusing on local and global extinction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)185-210
Number of pages26
JournalInternational Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics
Issue number3
Early online date23 Mar 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2018


  • blow-off
  • extinction
  • Spray flame
  • swirl


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