The mechanism of the highly regioselective cycloisomerisation of dimethyl hept-1,6-dienyl-4,4-dicarboxylate (1) by a neutral pre-catalyst, [(tBuCN)2PdCl2] (8), to generate dimethyl 3,4-dimethylcyclopent-2-ene-1,1-dicarboxylate (3) has been investigated by isotopic labelling (reactions involving single and mixed samples of 1,1,2,6,7,7-[2H6]-1; 3,3,5,5-[2H4]-1; 1,7-(Z,Z)-[2H2]-1; [1,3-13C1,5,7-13C1]-1 and [1,3-13C1,6-2H1]-1) and by study of the reactions of dimethyl 1-aryl-hept-1,6-dienyl-4,4-dicarboxylates (9 a-e, where aryl is p-C6H4-X; X=H, OMe, Me, Cl, CF3) and dimethyl hept-1,5-dienyl-4,4-dicarboxylate (14), a 1,5-diene isomer of 1. The mechanism proposed involves the generation of a monochloro-bearing palladium hydride which undergoes a simple hydropalladation, carbopalladation, Pd/H dyotropy, β-H elimination sequence to generate 3. A key point that emerges is that chelation of the 1,6-diene 1 at various stages in the mechanism plays an important role in determining the regioselectivity of the reaction. The selective generation of 3 with pre-catalysts of the form L2PdCl2, as compared to the generation of dimethyl 3-methylene-4-methyl-cyclopentane-1,1-dicarboxylate (2) with pre-catalysts of the form [(MeCN)2Pd(allyl)]OTf (5) is ascribed to the absence of chloride ion in the latter, which makes an additional coordination site available throughout turnover. Liberation of the product 3 when [(tBuCN)2PdCl2] (8) is employed as pre-catalyst, is proposed to proceed via a mono- to bidentate switch in the π-coordination of diene 1 (η2 to bis-η2) displacing π-coordinated 3 from Pd. When 1-aryl-1,6-dienes 9 are employed as substrates, the electron-donor property of the aryl group is found to influence the regioselectivity of cyclisation. Electron-withdrawing groups favour dimethyl 3-arylmethyl-4-methylcyclopent-2-ene-1,1-dicarboxylates (10), whilst electron-donating aryl groups favour 3-arylidene-4-methyl-cyclopentane-1,1-dicarboxylates (11). The regioselectivity (10/11) correlates with the Hammett σ+ values (ρ+=1.3, r2=0.975) indicative of a strong π-resonance contribution from the aryl ring rather than a simple σ-inductive effect. Intermolecular modulation of regioselectivity is observed and the net effect proposed to arise through the (π-->d) donation ability of the vinyl arene in the diene displacing product (10/11) via a mono- to bidentate switch in coordination. The isomerisation process increasingly sequesters Pd as turnover proceeds leading to a powerful inhibition mechanism and ultimately a limitation in turnover number to about 80.
|Translated title of the contribution||Mechanism of Cycloisomerisation of 1,6-Heptadienes Catalysed by [(tBuCN)2PdCl2]: Remarkable Influence of Exogenous and Endogenous 1,6- and 1,5-Diene Ligands|
|Pages (from-to)||8650 - 8663|
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||Chemistry - A European Journal|
|Publication status||Published - Nov 2006|