Mechanisms of cooperation in cancer nanomedicine: towards systems nanotechnology

Sabine Hauert, Sangeeta Bhatia

Research output: Contribution to journalSpecial issue (Academic Journal)peer-review

77 Citations (Scopus)


Nanoparticles are designed to deliver therapeutics and diagnostics selectively to tumors. Their size, shape, charge, material, coating, and cargo determine their individual functionalities. A systems approach could help predict the behavior of trillions of nanoparticles interacting in complex tumor environments. Engineering these nanosystems may lead to biomimetic strategies where interactions between nanoparticles and their environment give rise to cooperative behaviors typically seen in natural self-organized systems. Examples include nanoparticles that communicate the location of a tumor to amplify tumor homing or self-assemble and disassemble to optimize nanoparticle transport. The challenge is to discover which nanoparticle designs lead to a desired system behavior. To this end, novel nanomaterials, deep understanding of biology, and computational tools are emerging as the next frontier.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)448–455
Number of pages7
JournalTrends in Biotechnology
Issue number9
Early online date30 Jul 2014
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2014


  • swarming
  • cooperation
  • nanoparticles
  • systems nanotechnology
  • cancer


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