There has been an exciting expansion in the practice of medical pleuroscopy in recent years. As technology has become more available and confidence in the use of equipment has grown, medical thoracoscopy has become a core diagnostic and therapeutic tool in pleural disease care. Despite this, many areas of medical pleuroscopy practice remain conspicuously devoid of well-established evidence. More knowledge is needed in those areas where there is currently a degree of equipoise. Many areas where pleuroscopy currently has a marginal role require high-quality randomized trials be undertaken with a view to informing future practice and guidelines.