Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons receive inputs from entorhinal cortex directly via the temporoammonic (TA) pathway and indirectly via the Schaffer collateral (SC) pathway from CA3. NMDARs at synapses of both pathways are critical for the induction of synaptic plasticity, information processing, and learning and memory. We now demonstrate that, in the rat hippocampus, activity-dependent mGlu1 receptor-mediated LTD (mGlu1-LTD) of NMDAR-mediated transmission (EPSCNMDA) at the SC-CA1 input prevents subsequent LTP of AMPAR-mediated transmission. In contrast, there was no activity-dependent mGlu1-LTD of EPSCNMDA at the TA-CA1 pathway, or effects on subsequent plasticity of AMPAR-mediated transmission. Therefore, the two major pathways delivering information to CA1 pyramidal neurons are subject to very different plasticity rules.