Microwave contrast imaging of breast tis-sue from local velocity estimation

J. F. Deprez, M. Sarafianou, M. Klemm, I. J. Craddock, P. J. Probert-Smith*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


This paper proposes a new method to display microwave images of breast tissue, based on estimation of local microwave velocity from time of flight measurements. Its computational demands are low compared with tomography. It has two major components: 1) the estimation of the travel time of microwaves across the tissue between a set of antennae using a wavelet decomposition, and 2) the estimation of the microwave velocity field from the set of travel times using a low dimensional set of radial basis functions to model local velocity. The technique is evaluated in 2-D on clinical MR-based numerical breast phantoms incorporated in Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulations. The basis functions, used with a regularisation scheme to improve numerical stability, reduce the dimensionality of the inverse problem for computational effciency and also to improve the robustness to error in velocity estimation. The results support previously published findings that the wavelet transform is suitable for robust measurement of time of flight even in clinically significant simulations, and shows that the velocity contrast images can be constructed so different regions of breast tissue type can be distinguished. In particular, the presence of a tumour is clearly detected, demonstrating the potential of this approach for breast screening.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)381-403
Number of pages23
JournalProgress in Electromagnetics Research
Issue number42
Publication statusPublished - 22 Aug 2012


  • Biomedical signal processing
  • Image reconstruction
  • Microwave imaging


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