Misinformation and the epistemic integrity of democracy

Stephan Lewandowsky*, Ullrich K H Ecker, John Cook, Sander Van Der Linden, Jon Roozenbeek, Naomi Oreskes

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article (Academic Journal)peer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Democracy relies on a shared body of knowledge among citizens, for example trust in elections and reliable knowledge to inform policy-relevant debate. We review the evidence for widespread disinformation campaigns that are undermining this shared knowledge. We establish a common pattern by which science and scientists are discredited and how the most recent frontier in those attacks involves researchers in misinformation itself. We list several ways in which psychology can contribute to countermeasures.
Original languageEnglish
Article number101711
JournalCurrent Opinion in Psychology
Early online date19 Oct 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
SL acknowledges financial support from the European Research Council (ERC Advanced Grant 101020961 PRODEMINFO), the Humboldt Foundation through a research award, the Volkswagen Foundation (grant “Reclaiming individual autonomy and democratic discourse online”), and from UK Research and Innovation (through the Centre of Excellence, REPHRAIN). UKHE acknowledges support from the Australian Research Council (grant FT190100708). JR acknowledges support from the British Academy (#PF21-210010), Google Jigsaw, IRIS Coalition ( UK Government , #SCH-00001-3391), the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC, #ES/V011960/1), and the Global Engagement Center (US Department of State).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors

Structured keywords

  • TeDCog
  • Cognitive Science


  • integrity of democracy
  • attacks on scientists
  • climate science
  • misinformation


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