The Cytochrome P450 family of heme-containing proteins plays a major role in catalyzing phase I metabolic reactions, and the CYP3A4 subtype is responsible for the metabolism of many currently marketed drugs. Additionally, CYP3A4 has an inherent affinity for a broad spectrum of structurally diverse chemical entities, often leading to drug-drug interactions mediated by the inhibition or induction of the metabolic enzyme. The current study explores the binding of selected highly efficient CYP3A4 inhibitors by docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation protocols and their binding free energy calculated using the WaterSwap method. The results indicate the importance of binding pocket residues including Phe57, Arg105, Arg106, Ser119, Arg212, Phe213, Thr309, Ser312, Ala370, Arg372, Glu374, Gly481 and Leu483 for interaction with CYP3A4 inhibitors. The residue-wise decomposition of the binding free energy from theWaterSwap method revealed the importance of binding site residues Arg106 and Arg372 in the stabilization of all the selected CYP3A4-inhibitor complexes. The WaterSwap binding energies were further complemented with the MM(GB/PB)SA results and it was observed that the binding energies calculated by both methods do not differ significantly. Overall, our results could guide towards the use of multiple computational approaches to achieve a better understanding of CYP3A4 inhibition, subsequently leading to the design of highly specific and efficient new chemical entities with suitable ADMETox properties and reduced side effects.
- CYP3A4 inhibitors
- Molecular dynamics simulation
- Residue-wise energy decomposition