Mortality and morbidity in obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome: results from a 30-year prospective cohort study

Sophie Dodds, Linda J Williams, Amber Roguski, Marjorie Vennelle, Neil J Douglas, Serafeim-Chrysovalantis Kotoulas, Renata L Riha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)

Abstract

Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) carries substantial negative health consequences. This study examines factors affecting mortality and morbidity according to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) use and predictors affecting CPAP adherence in a longitudinal cohort of OSAHS patients.

Materials and methods: This prospective, cohort study comprised 4502 patients who were diagnosed with OSAHS at a tertiary sleep disorders centre between 1982 and 2003. Of these, 1174 patients completed follow-up in 2012. Data collected included anthropometric, sleep and demographic characteristics, including comorbidities, ongoing medications and CPAP adherence. Patients were followed up for an average of 14.8±3.7 years.

Results: Imputation analysis showed that long-term CPAP users (>5 years) were 5.63 times more likely to be alive at study end than non-CPAP users (95% CI: 4.83-6.58, p<0.001) and 1.74-times more likely than short-term CPAP users (≤5 years) (95% CI: 1.49-2.02, p<0.001). Females had a significantly higher mortality rate during the follow-up period (26.8% versus 19.6%, p<0.001). Respiratory mortality was more common in patients with OSAHS, in particular those who did not use CPAP, compared to the general population (17.2% versus 12.2%, p=0.002 respectively), whereas deaths from cancer were less common compared to the general population (16.2% versus 25.6%, p<0.001). Compared to CPAP users, non-CPAP-users had a significantly increased incidence of type II diabetes mellitus (DMII) (27.9% versus 18.7%, p=0.003), ischaemic heart disease (IHD) (25.5% versus 12.7%, p<0.001) and myocardial infarction (MI) (14.7% versus 4.2%, p<0.001) at long-term follow-up.

Conclusions: Long-term CPAP use in men and women with OSAHS reduces mortality and decreases the incidence of DMII and cardiovascular disease.

Original languageEnglish
JournalERJ Open Research
Volume6
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Sep 2020

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