The development of increasingly sophisticated hierarchical structures in the design of functional electrode surfaces introduces a high degree of complexity into the analysis of conventional electrochemical responses. This article briefly summarizes recent developments in techniques based on the concepts of scanning force microscopy (SFM) for the in situ characterization of electrode surfaces. High-resolution morphological studies during phase formation and ion insertion processes have provided valuable insights into the correlations between electrochemical signals and surface structural changes. Novel measuring modes such as the combined scanning electrochemical microscopy-SFM have opened the possibility of mapping electrochemical reactivity of heterogeneous surfaces at the sub-micron range. Finally, the use of SFM for accurate analysis of electrostatic forces associated with the electrochemical double layer is also highlighted.
- double layer forces
- modified electrodes
- scanning electrochemical microscopy
- ELECTROCHEMICAL MICROSCOPE