Neighborhood matters: Divergent patterns of stress-induced plasticity across the brain

Sumantra Chattarji*, Anupratap Tomar, Aparna Suvrathan, Supriya Ghosh, Mohammed Mostafizur Rahman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article (Academic Journal)

101 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The fact that exposure to severe stress leads to the development of psychiatric disorders serves as the basic rationale for animal models of stress disorders. Clinical and neuroimaging studies have shown that three brain areas involved in learning and memory - the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex - undergo distinct structural and functional changes in individuals with stress disorders. These findings from patient studies pose several challenges for animal models of stress disorders. For instance, why does stress impair cognitive function, yet enhance fear and anxiety? Can the same stressful experience elicit contrasting patterns of plasticity in the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex? How does even a brief exposure to traumatic stress lead to long-lasting behavioral abnormalities? Thus, animal models of stress disorders must not only capture the unique spatio-temporal features of structural and functional alterations in these brain areas, but must also provide insights into the underlying neuronal plasticity mechanisms. This Review will address some of these key questions by describing findings from animal models on how stress-induced plasticity varies across different brain regions and thereby gives rise to the debilitating emotional and cognitive symptoms of stress-related psychiatric disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1364-1375
Number of pages12
JournalNature Neuroscience
Volume18
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015

Keywords

  • Stress
  • Hippocampus
  • Prefrontal Cortex
  • Amygdala

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