New Class of High-Energy, High-Power Capacitive Devices Enabled by Stabilized Lithium Metal Anodes

Mahdokht Shaibani*, Md Joynul Abedin, Meysam Sharifzadeh Mirshekarloo, James C. Griffith, Ruhani Singh, Phillip Aitchison, Matthew R. Hill, Mainak Majumder*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review


Lithium-ion capacitors (LIC) combine the energy storage mechanisms of lithium-ion batteries and electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) and are supposed to promise the best of both worlds: high energy and power density combined with a long life. However, the lack of lithium cation sources in the carbon cathode demands the cumbersome step of prelithiation of the graphite anode, mainly by using sacrificial lithium metal, hindering the mass adoption of LICs. Here, in a conceptually new class of devices termed lithium metal capacitors (LMC), we replace the graphite anode with a lithium metal anode stabilized by a complex yet stable solid-electrolyte interface (SEI). Via a specialized formation process, the well-explored synergetic reaction between the LiNO3 additive and controlled amounts of polysulfides in an ether-based electrolyte stabilizes the SEI on the lithium metal electrode. Optimized devices at the coin cell level deliver 55 mAh g-1 at a fast 30C discharge rate and maintain 95% capacity after 8000 cycles. At the pouch-cell level, energy densities of 13 Wh kg-1 are readily achieved, indicating the transferability of the technology to practical scales. The LMC, a new class of capacitive device, eliminates the prelithiation process of the conventional LIC, allowing practical production at scale and offering exciting avenues for exploring versatile cathode chemistries on account of using a lithium metal anode.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37454-37466
Number of pages13
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number31
Early online date28 Jul 2023
Publication statusPublished - 9 Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors acknowledge using facilities within the Monash X-ray Platform, the Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy and CSIRO Materials Characterisation. Ionic Industries, Australia, and the Australian Research Council, through DP190100880, partially provided financial support for this work.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Chemical Society


  • lithium hybrid device
  • lithium metal capacitor
  • lithium metal stabilization
  • lithium polysulfides
  • stable SEI


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