BACKGROUND: Recently, nitric oxide (NO) donors have been developed that mimic the physiological intracellular release of NO. We evaluated whether one of these new compounds, consisting of aspirin coupled to an NO-releasing moiety (NCX 4016), would protect limbs from supervening arterial occlusion.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were assigned to receive regular chow or chow containing NCX 4016 or aspirin (both at 300 mumol/kg body weight, daily) throughout the 3-week experimental period. One week after randomization, they underwent surgical excision of the left femoral artery. Limb blood flow recovery (laser Doppler flowmetry) was accelerated by NCX 4016 as compared with aspirin or vehicle (P<0.05). In controls, histological analysis revealed a 35% increase in the capillary density of ischemic muscles compared with contralateral ones, indicative of spontaneous angiogenesis. Neovascularization was enhanced by NCX 4016 (91%; P<0.05 versus vehicle), but not by aspirin (51%; P=NS versus vehicle). Furthermore, NCX 4016 reduced endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis (4.3+/-1.0 versus 8.7+/-2.0 in aspirin and 12.6+/-3.3 ECs/1000 cap in vehicle; P<0.05 for either comparison) as well as caspase-3 mRNA levels in ischemic muscles ([caspase-3/GAPDH]*100 = 0.09+/-0.04 versus 2.30+/-0.44 in aspirin and 2.30+/-0.32 in vehicle; P<0.01 for either comparison). Nitrite levels and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione were selectively increased in ischemic muscles by NCX 4016. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression was reduced by aspirin, with this effect being blunted by NCX 4016.
CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with the new oral NO-releasing aspirin derivative stimulates reparative angiogenesis and prevents apoptosis and oxidative stress, thereby alleviating the consequences of supervening arterial occlusion.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology|
|Publication status||Published - Nov 2004|
- Disease Models, Animal
- Gene Expression Regulation
- Mice, Inbred Strains
- Muscle, Skeletal
- Neovascularization, Physiologic
- Nitric Oxide
- Oxidative Stress
- Reperfusion Injury
- Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A