Numerical and experimental analysis of the leaning Tower of Pisa under earthquake

Gabriele Fiorentino*, Davide Lavorato, Giuseppe Quaranta, Alessandro Pagliaroli, Giorgia Carlucci, Camillo Nuti, Fabio Sabetta, Giuseppe Della Monica, Maurizio Piersanti, Giuseppe Lanzo, Giuseppe Carlo Marano, Giorgio Monti, Nunziante Squeglia, Raffaello Bartelletti

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference Paperpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Twenty years have passed from the most recent studies about the dynamic behavior of the leaning Tower of Pisa. Significant changes have occurred in the meantime, the most important ones concerning the soil-structure interaction. From 1999 to 2001, the foundation of the monument was consolidated through under-excavation, and the "Catino" at the basement was rigidly connected to the foundation. Moreover, in light of the recent advances in the field of earthquake engineering, past studies about the Tower must be revised. Therefore, the present research aims at providing new data and results about the structural response of the Tower under earthquake. As regards the experimental assessment of the Tower, the dynamic response of the structure recorded during some earthquakes has been analyzed in the time- and frequency-domain. An Array 2D test has been performed in the Square of Miracles to identify a soil profile suitable for site response analyses, thus allowing the definition of the free-field seismic inputs at the base of the Tower. On the other hand, a synthetic evaluation of the seismic input in terms of response spectra has been done by means of a hybrid approach that combines Probabilistic and Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment methods. Furthermore, natural accelerograms have been selected and scaled properly. A finite element model that takes into account the inclination of the structure has been elaborated, and it has been updated taking into account the available experimental results. Finally, current numerical and experimental efforts for enhancing the seismic characterization of the Tower have been illustrated.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 13 Sept 2017
Event10th International Conference on Structural Dynamics, EURODYN 2017 - Rome, Italy
Duration: 10 Sept 201713 Sept 2017


Conference10th International Conference on Structural Dynamics, EURODYN 2017


  • Dynamic response
  • Leaning Tower
  • Seismic hazard assessment
  • Soil-structure interaction


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