This article is devoted to the modeling of spread kind of damages such as matrix cracking and induced delamination in symmetric and asymmetric cross-ply laminates of composite materials using cohesive elements. For matrix crack modeling, parallel rows of cohesive elements are used between every row of 2D elements in 90° layers. Delamination is also modeled by cohesive elements at the 90°/0° interface. Since matrix cracking is a diffuse kind of damage mechanism, application of cohesive elements is not straightforward, and special techniques are necessary to resolve the modeling difficulties. For this purpose, two techniques of “bisecting” and “random distribution of strength of cohesive elements” are proposed here. Both techniques are applied to various symmetric laminates of [0/903]s and [90n/0]s (n = 1 to 3). The predicted stiffness and damage progresses from both techniques are in good agreement with the experimental results. Then, asymmetric cross-ply laminates of [90n/0] (n = 1 to 3) are analyzed to show the capability of this method in progressive damage analyses. The proposed method is less restricted in comparison with available micromechanical methods and is able to predict damage initiation, propagation and damage-mode transition for any symmetric and asymmetric cross-ply sequence. Therefore, this method can be used for development of “in-plane damage” of constitutive laws especially when specimens are subjected to complex loading and boundary conditions.
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science|
|Early online date||19 Sep 2012|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jul 2013|