Variable Angle Tow (VAT) composites offer increased freedom for tailoring material properties compared to traditional straight-fibre composites. This increased freedom leads to greater design flexibility for enhanced structural performance but comes at the cost of more complex, spatially-varying displacement, strain and stress fields. To maximise the utility of VAT composites, a computationally efficient, yet accurate, numerical framework is needed. To this end, we employ a modelling approach that builds upon the recently developed, hierarchical Serendipity Lagrange finite elements. Three-dimensional (3D) stress distribution is obtained using the present modelling technique and verified against 3D finite element solutions, as well as other formulations available in the literature. A key advantage of the present approach is the ability to predict accurate 3D stress fields efficiently, i.e. with reduced computational effort, including around local features such as geometric, kinematic or constitutive boundaries. Moreover, the present work concerns the peculiarities of commonly used mathematical expressions for describing spatially varying fibre orientations across VAT laminates. The presence of an absolute value in the function used to describe fibre orientation can lead to discontinuities in fibre angle slope and curvature. In turn, these discontinuities lead to mathematical singularities in the constitutive relations along the laminate. If this singularity is not appropriately modelled as a boundary of the continuum, but rather as an interior point of the continuum, stresses may be predicted inaccurately. Compared to other models in the literature, our method is capable of unveiling detailed 3D stresses readily and accurately also in the vicinity of this singularity.
- Bristol Composites Institute ACCIS
- Variable angle tow composites
- 3D stress fields
- Unified Formulation
- Unified formulation