In this work, a physically based self-consistent model is developed and employed to examine the microscopic lattice response of pre-strained Type 316H polycrystalline austenitic stainless steel subjected to uniaxial tensile and compressive loading. The model is also used to explain the Bauschinger effect observed at the macroscopic length-scale. Formulated in a crystal based plasticity framework, the model incorporates detailed strengthening effects associated with different microstructural elements such as forest dislocation junctions, solute atoms and precipitates on individual crystallographic slip planes of each individual grain within the polycrystal. The elastoplastic response of the bulk polycrystal is obtained by homogenizing the response of all the constituent grains using a self-consistent approach. Micro-plasticity mechanisms and how these influence the Bauschinger effect are illustrated in terms of the role of residual stresses at different length-scales. Overall, predictions are in good agreement with experimental data of the Bauschinger effect and the corresponding meso-scale lattice response of the material, with the latter measured by neutron diffraction. The results demonstrate that transient softening of the material is related to residual stresses at different length scales. In addition, the (Type III) residual stress at the micro-scale slip system level extends the strain range over which the tensile and compressive reloading curves of the pre-strained material merge.
Bibliographical noteIn memory of Professor David Smith, who died as the result of a tragic climbing accident during the period this paper was in preparation.
- Bauschinger effect
- Austenitic stainless steel
- Self-consistent model
- Multi-scale residual stress