This article examines dynamic energy consumption caused by data during software execution on deeply embedded microprocessors, which can be significant on some devices. In worst-case energy consumption analysis, energy models are used to find the most costly execution path. Taking each instruction’s worst-case energy produces a safe but overly pessimistic upper bound. Algorithms for safe and tight bounds would be desirable. We show that finding exact worst-case energy is NP-hard, and that tight bounds cannot be approximated with guaranteed safety. We conclude that any energy model targeting tightness must either sacrifice safety or accept overapproximation proportional to data-dependent energy.
- Energy transparency
- Worst case energy consumption