On the Mechanism of Cuprate Crystal Growth: The Role of Mixed Metal Carbonates

David C. Green, Rebecca Boston, Stefan Glatzel, Martin R. Lees, Stuart C. Wimbush, Jason Potticary, Wataru Ogasawara, Simon R. Hall*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
494 Downloads (Pure)


The mechanism of formation of the superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (Bi-2212) has been an open question since its discovery in 1988. By controlling crystal growth through the use of biopolymers as multivalent cation chelating agents, it is demonstrated through X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis, that it is the formation of a mixed metal carbonate eutectic that promotes the formation of the target phase. X-ray diffraction experiments, supported by infrared spectroscopy, identify this phase as (Sr1−x Ca x )CO3. This knowledge allows to further reduce the eutectic melting point by the incorporation of a biopolymer rich in potassium ions, resulting in the scalable formation of Bi-2212 at a temperature 50 °C lower than has been achieved previously.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4700–4707
Number of pages8
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number29
Early online date25 Jun 2015
Publication statusPublished - 5 Aug 2015

Bibliographical note

Date of Acceptance: 27/05/2015


  • Carbonates
  • Inorganic materials
  • Mechanisms
  • Oxides
  • Superconductors

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