PURPOSE: To determine whether patients with juvenile systemic granulomatous disease (JSGD) (Blau syndrome) and uveitis have a characteristic ocular phenotype.
METHODS: Clinical and imaging data were collected retrospectively from patients attending the Regional Combined Paediatric Rheumatology and Ocular Inflammatory Service, Bristol Eye Hospital. General demographic information, laterality of the uveitis, age at onset, anatomical classification and course of the uveitis, clinical phenotype and specific NOD2 mutation were recorded for each patient.
RESULTS: Seventeen eyes from nine patients (five males; four females) were included in the study. Mean age at the disease onset was 15 months, range 1-84 months. Eight patients had bilateral uveitis. Anterior uveitis was present in five eyes, intermediate uveitis in two eyes, and there were 10 eyes with panuveitis, manifesting as multifocal choroiditis. Appearance of optic disc included indistinct disc margins in six eyes, optic nerve head pallor in six eyes, optic disc vessel sheathing in four eyes, and there was peripapillary hypo/hyperpigmentation in 13 eyes accompanied with characteristic peripapillary nodular excrescences. Among NOD2 mutations, the p.R334W was the most commonly detected (n: four cases), and three patients carried novel variants, the p.E338D and p.D390V variants in one patient, and the p.H520Y and p.Q809K variants in two different patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Chronic bilateral panuveitis and a nodular peripapillary appearance in childhood onset uveitis are characteristic features of JSGD, which support the need for an appropriate genetic NOD2 analysis.