Optimal utilisation of small-scale embedded generators in a developing country - A case study in Malaysia

Jianhui Wong*, Yun Seng Lim, Phil Taylor, Stella Morris

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems are likely to become a dominant type of small-scale embedded generator (SSEG) on public low voltage (LV) distribution network in Malaysia due to the enormous amount of initiatives and efforts taken by the government to promote the use of BIPV. The growth of BIPV systems on LV distribution networks has the potential to alter the direction of power flow across the distribution networks, hence imposing several serious technical issues relating to power quality, distribution system efficiency and possible equipment overloading. Therefore, the utility companies need to study the following technical issues: (i) voltage regulation, (ii) voltage rise, (iii) voltage unbalance, (iv) network power losses, and (v) cable and transformer thermal limits. This paper describes research carried out to investigate and quantify the impacts of BIPV on LV networks with particular reference to developing countries striving to increase the utilisation of renewable energy. This paper presents and discusses the impacts of BIPV systems on two types of LV distribution network: a commercial LV distribution network and a residential LV distribution network in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The results of these studies are compared with those from European networks to identify how the differences in the electrical network characteristics influence the allowable penetration of small-scale embedded generators.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2562-2572
Number of pages11
JournalRenewable Energy
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2011

Bibliographical note

Copyright 2011 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Building integrated photovoltaic systems
  • Low voltage distribution networks of Malaysia
  • Small-scale embedded generation


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