TY - UNPB

T1 - Optimising the exchange of Majorana zero modes in a quantum nanowire network

AU - Maciazek, Tomasz

AU - Conlon, Aaron

PY - 2024/6

Y1 - 2024/6

N2 - Determination of optimal control protocols for Majorana zero modes during their exchange is a crucial step towards the realisation of the topological quantum computer. In this paper, we study the finite-time exchange process of Majorana zero modes on a network formed by coupled p-wave superconducting one-dimensional nanowires. We provide scalable computational tools for optimising such an exchange process relying on deep learning techniques. To accomplish the scalability, we derive and implement an analytic formula for the gradient of the quantum infidelity which measures the error in the topological quantum gate generation in the Majorana zero modes exchange. Our optimisation strategy relies on learning the optimised transport protocol via a neural net which is followed by direct gradient descent fine tuning. The optimised exchange protocols in the super-adiabatic regime discover the fact that the Majorana zero modes must necessarily stop before crossing a junction point in the network. We explain that this is caused by fast changes in the energy gap of the system whenever one of the Majorana zero modes approaches a junction point. In particular, the energy gap exhibits oscillations followed by a sharp jump. We explain this phenomenon analytically in the regime where the Majorana zero modes are completely localised. Finally, we study how the disorder in the quantum nanowire affects the exchange protocols. This shows that understanding the disorder pattern would allow one to improve quantum gate fidelity by one to two orders of magnitude.

AB - Determination of optimal control protocols for Majorana zero modes during their exchange is a crucial step towards the realisation of the topological quantum computer. In this paper, we study the finite-time exchange process of Majorana zero modes on a network formed by coupled p-wave superconducting one-dimensional nanowires. We provide scalable computational tools for optimising such an exchange process relying on deep learning techniques. To accomplish the scalability, we derive and implement an analytic formula for the gradient of the quantum infidelity which measures the error in the topological quantum gate generation in the Majorana zero modes exchange. Our optimisation strategy relies on learning the optimised transport protocol via a neural net which is followed by direct gradient descent fine tuning. The optimised exchange protocols in the super-adiabatic regime discover the fact that the Majorana zero modes must necessarily stop before crossing a junction point in the network. We explain that this is caused by fast changes in the energy gap of the system whenever one of the Majorana zero modes approaches a junction point. In particular, the energy gap exhibits oscillations followed by a sharp jump. We explain this phenomenon analytically in the regime where the Majorana zero modes are completely localised. Finally, we study how the disorder in the quantum nanowire affects the exchange protocols. This shows that understanding the disorder pattern would allow one to improve quantum gate fidelity by one to two orders of magnitude.

U2 - 10.48550/arXiv.2310.13634 Focus to learn more

DO - 10.48550/arXiv.2310.13634 Focus to learn more

M3 - Preprint

BT - Optimising the exchange of Majorana zero modes in a quantum nanowire network

ER -