Optimising VVC Encoding Using Key Frame Selection

Sanat Nagaraju, Fan Zhang, Seishi Takamura, David R Bull

Research output: Contribution to journalSpecial issue (Academic Journal)peer-review


This paper presents a simple approach to encode video sequences by selecting an optimal Intra encoded frame (I-frame). I-frames in Versatile Video Coding (VVC) random access mode influence the bitrate required for the remaining frames in the group of pictures (GOP). Hence, we carry out a full search for the optimal frame in the first GOP and select an I-frame with appropriate spatiotemporal information. This full search is carried out during the pre-processing stage and hence, do not introduce large complexities into the VVC codec. We prove our technique with over 100 sequences, using BVI-DVC and JVET sequences, to have wide range of content. Our technique is best suited for offline coding and suitable for pre-recorded streaming videos. Applying this technique to encode JVET sequences using the VVC random access mode, results indicate average bit rate savings (based on the Bjøntegaard Delta metric) of approximately 2.1% on the Y-channel.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)78-85
Number of pages8
JournalIIEEJ Transactions On Image Electronics and Visual Computing
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 22 Dec 2021


  • video coding
  • reference frames
  • intra frame selection
  • coding gains
  • versatile video coding


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