Orofacial granulomatosis and dietary interventions: health information on the internet

Daire Shanahan, James Ashworth-Holland, Konrad Staines

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
48 Downloads (Pure)


To assess the content, quality, and readability of health information on the internet for patients with orofacial granulomatosis, including material on benzoate and cinnamon-free diets. The first 100 websites drawn from searches using 8 key terms (2400 websites) across 3 search engines (Yahoo, Google, and Bing) were analysed. Duplicates or websites with unrelated information were excluded, which brought the number of websites included in the study to 12. To assess the quality of the information, we used the DISCERN questionnaire, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Benchmark Criteria, and Health on Net Seal. The readability was then analysed by applying the Flesch-Kincaid Reading Ease and Grade Level tests, the Automated Readability Index, and global traffic ranking (ALEXA). Separate assessment for both orofacial granulomatosis, and its management with a benzoate and cinnamon-free diet, showed that most websites (75%) were either ‘very poor’ or ‘poor’ in quality, with a mean DISCERN score of 31.4 out of 80. No website met all four JAMA benchmarks. Only two websites displayed the HONcode seal. Generally, health information was considered difficult to read, with a FRES ranging from 21.5 to 68, with a mean score of 48 (±13.2). To comprehend this information, readers would need to have, on average, a 10th grade US level education. The quality and readability of online information on orofacial granulomatosis is poor and difficult to read.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages6
JournalHeath and Technology
Early online date19 Apr 2019
Publication statusPublished - 19 Apr 2019


  • Orofacial granulomatosis
  • Granulomatosis cheilitis
  • Benzoate and cinnamon exclusion diet
  • Internet
  • Health information

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