Orthodontic pain: an interaction between age and sex in early and middle adolescence

Satpal S Sandhu, Jasleen Sandhu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the age and sex interaction effect on orthodontic pain in adolescence during the initial phase of fixed orthodontic treatment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred participants (mean age 13.85 ± 1.98 years; 152 female, 148 male) met all inclusion criteria and enrolled in the study designed as 2 × 2 factorial trial with two levels each for age (11-14 years; 14-17 years) and sex (male; female). A 0.16-inch superelastic NiTi wire was used in a 0.022-inch slot (Roth's prescription) preadjusted edgewise appliance for initial leveling and alignment of mandibular anterior dentition. The follow-up period was 7 days. Pain was assessed by using 100 mm visual analog scale for one baseline and nine follow-up repeated measurements at prespecified time points. Data were analyzed by using generalized linear mixed effect model analysis.

RESULTS: Three participants were lost to follow-up, and 17 participants were not considered for analysis due to incomplete or improperly completed questionnaire. Therefore, 280 participants (mean age 13.96 ± 2.01 years; 138 female, 142 male) were analyzed for results. Results showed that age and sex interaction had statistically significant effect on pain (F  =  3.56; P  =  .0151; df 3/218). In the 11-14 year age group, there was no significant difference for pain between male and female. In the 14-17 year age group, girls reported significantly greater pain compared to 14- to 17 year-old boys (t  =  2.76; P  =  .0209). Pain reported by 14- to 17-year-old girls was also significantly greater compared to 11- to 14-year-old boys (t  =  2.91; P  =  .0206).

CONCLUSIONS: Age and sex interaction has significant effect on orthodontic pain during adolescence, and 14- to 17-year-old girls experienced maximum pain.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)966-72
Number of pages7
JournalAngle Orthodontist
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2013


  • Adolescent
  • Age Factors
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Orthodontic Appliances
  • Pain
  • Pain Measurement
  • Sex Factors
  • Tooth Movement

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