OBJECTIVES: Some patients with complex congenital heart disease (cCHD) also require aortic valve (AoV) procedures. These cases are considered high risk but their outcome has not been well characterized. We aim to describe these scenarios in the current practice, and provide outcome data for counselling and decision-making.
METHODS: This was a retrospective study using the UK National Congenital Heart Disease Audit data on cCHD patients undergoing aortic valve replacement, balloon dilation (balloon aortic valvuloplasty) or surgical repair (surgical aortic valve repair) between 2000 and 2012. Coarsened exact matching was used to pair cCHD with patients undergoing AoV procedures for isolated valve disease.
RESULTS: A total of 201 patients with a varied spectrum of cCHD undergoing 242 procedures were included, median age 9.4 years (1 day-65 years). Procedure types were: balloon aortic valvuloplasty (n = 31, 13%), surgical aortic valve repair (n = 57, 24%) and aortic valve replacement (n = 154, 63%). Mortality at 30 days was higher in neonates (21.8% vs 5.3%, P = 0.02). Survival at 10 years was 83.1%, freedom from aortic valve replacement 83.8% and freedom from balloon aortic valvuloplasty/surgical aortic valve repair 86.3%. Neonatal age (P < 0.001), single ventricle (P = 0.08), concomitant Fontan/Glenn (P = 0.002) or aortic arch procedures (0.02) were associated with higher mortality. cCHD patients had lower survival at 30 days (93% vs 100%, P = 0.003) and at 10 years (86.4% vs 96.1%, P = 0.005) compared to matched isolated AoV disease patients.
CONCLUSIONS: AoV procedures in cCHD can be performed with good results outside infancy, but with higher mortality than in isolated AoV disease. Neonates and patients with single ventricle defects, especially those undergoing concomitant Fontan/Glenn, have worse outcomes.
- Aortic valve replacement
- Balloon aortic valvotomy
- Congenital heart disease
- Tetralogy of Fallot
- Transposition of great arteries
- Single ventricle