Paradiplomacy of India’s chief ministers

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Since the mid-1990s, state governments within India’s federal system have taken a greater interest in foreign relations. They have sought indirect influence by lobbying the central government to take account of their preferences and direct influence by seeking investment and making links with international organizations and other national and subnational governments. This article considers how chief ministers engage in parallel diplomacy noting how they draw on regional cultural resources and make connections with a regionally defined diaspora. The article finds that some chief ministers have embraced the role of “chief diplomat,” while others take a more discreet approach to international activity. Comparing the cases of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu reveals the political logic for expanding, de-emphasizing, or avoiding international engagement.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)106-124
Number of pages19
JournalIndia Review
Issue number1
Early online date10 Mar 2017
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Paradiplomacy
  • India
  • Foreign Direct Investment
  • diaspora
  • federalism
  • Chandrababu Naidu


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