Pathways of antibiotic use in Bangladesh: qualitative protocol for the PAUSE study

Emily K Rousham, Mohammad Aminul Islam, Papreen Nahar, Patricia Jane Lucas, Nahitun Naher, Syed Masud Ahmed, Fosiul Alam Nizame, Leanne Unicomb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)
234 Downloads (Pure)


Introduction Global actions to reduce antimicrobial resistance (AMR) include optimising the use of antimicrobial medicines in human and animal health. In countries with weak healthcare regulation, this requires a greater understanding of the drivers of antibiotic use from the perspective of providers and consumers. In Bangladesh, there is limited research on household decision-making and healthcare seeking in relation to antibiotic use and consumption for humans and livestock. Knowledge is similarly lacking on factors influencing the supply and demand for antibiotics among qualified and unqualified healthcare providers.

The aim of this study is to conduct integrated research on household decision-making for healthcare and antibiotic use, as well as the awareness, behaviours and priorities of healthcare providers and sellers of antibiotics to translate into policy development and implementation.

Methods and analysis In-depth interviews will be conducted with (1) household members responsible for decision-making about illness and antibiotic use for family and livestock; (2) qualified and unqualified private and government healthcare providers in human and animal medicine and (3) stakeholders and policy-makers as key informants on the development and implementation of policy around AMR. Participant observation within retail drug shops will also be carried out. Qualitative methods will include a thematic framework analysis.

A holistic approach to understanding who makes decisions on the sale and use of antibiotics, and what drives healthcare seeking in Bangladesh will enable identification of routes to behavioural change and the development of effective interventions to reduce the health risks of AMR.

Ethics and dissemination Approval for the study has been obtained from the Institutional Review Board at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh following review by the Research and Ethics Committees (PR-16100) and from Loughborough University (R17-P081). Information about the study will be provided in a participant information letter in Bangla (to be read verbally and given in writing to participants). A written informed consent form in Bangla will be obtained and participants will be informed of their right to withdraw from the study. Dissemination will take place through a 1 day dissemination workshop with key stakeholders in public health and policy, practitioners and scientists in Bangladesh, and through international conference presentations and peer-review publications. Anonymised transcripts of interviews will be made available through open access via institutional data repositories after an embargo period.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere028215
Pages (from-to)e028215
Number of pages6
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number1
Early online date25 Jan 2019
Publication statusPublished - 25 Jan 2019

Bibliographical note

© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ.

Structured keywords

  • SPS Centre for Research in Health and Social Care


Dive into the research topics of 'Pathways of antibiotic use in Bangladesh: qualitative protocol for the PAUSE study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this