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Glomerular endothelial cell injury is a key component of a variety of diseases. Factors involved in glomerular endothelial cell repair are promising therapeutic agents for such diseases. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-C has pro-angiogenic properties; however, nothing is known about such functions in the kidney. We therefore investigated the consequences of either PDGF-C infusion or inhibition in rats with mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis, which is accompanied by widespread glomerular endothelial cell damage. We also assessed the role of PDGF-C in a mouse model of thrombotic microangiopathy as well as in cultured glomerular endothelial cells. PDGF-C infusion in nephritic rats significantly reduced mesangiolysis and microaneurysm formation, whereas glomerular endothelial cell area and proliferation increased. PDGF-C infusion specifically up-regulated glomerular fibroblast growth factor-2 expression. In contrast, antagonism of PDGF-C in glomerulonephritis specifically reduced glomerular endothelial cell area and proliferation and increased mesangiolysis. Similarly, PDGF-C antagonism in murine thrombotic microangiopathy aggravated the disease and reduced glomerular endothelial area. In conditionally immortalized glomerular endothelial cells, PDGF-C was mitogenic and induced a 27-fold up-regulation of fibroblast growth factor-2 mRNA. PDGF-C also exerted indirect pro-angiogenic effects, since it induced endothelial cell mitogens and pro-angiogenic factors in mesangial cells and macrophages. These results identify PDGF-C as a novel, potent pro-angiogenic factor in the kidney that can accelerate capillary healing in experimental glomerulonephritis and thrombotic microangiopathy.