Approximately 1 in 20 individuals in Europe and North America suffer from an autoimmune disease. Autoimmune diseases are currently treated with non-specific drugs many of which have unacceptable side effects. In addition, these treatments are palliative and there is no known treatment for an autoimmune disease that blocks the underlying autoimmune response. Recent advances have, however, revealed immunoregulatory mechanisms that control the immune system. In particular, regulatory T cells have been shown to control autoimmunity in healthy individuals. This review focuses on strategies designed to promote immune regulation through the administration of antigenic peptides. The aim of this approach is to reinforce immune regulatory mechanisms in an antigen specific manner.