Periderm prevents pathological epithelial adhesions during embryogenesis

Rebecca J Richardson, Nigel L Hammond, Pierre A Coulombe, Carola Saloranta, Heidi O Nousiainen, Riitta Salonen, Andrew Berry, Neil Hanley, Denis Headon, Riitta Karikoski, Michael J Dixon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)
312 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Appropriate development of stratified, squamous, keratinizing epithelia, such as the epidermis and oral epithelia, generates an outer protective permeability barrier that prevents water loss, entry of toxins, and microbial invasion. During embryogenesis, the immature ectoderm initially consists of a single layer of undifferentiated, cuboidal epithelial cells that stratifies to produce an outer layer of flattened periderm cells of unknown function. Here, we determined that periderm cells form in a distinct pattern early in embryogenesis, exhibit highly polarized expression of adhesion complexes, and are shed from the outer surface of the embryo late in development. Mice carrying loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding IFN regulatory factor 6 (IRF6), IκB kinase-α (IKKα), and stratifin (SFN) exhibit abnormal epidermal development, and we determined that mutant animals exhibit dysfunctional periderm formation, resulting in abnormal intracellular adhesions. Furthermore, tissue from a fetus with cocoon syndrome, a lethal disorder that results from a nonsense mutation in IKKA, revealed an absence of periderm. Together, these data indicate that periderm plays a transient but fundamental role during embryogenesis by acting as a protective barrier that prevents pathological adhesion between immature, adhesion-competent epithelia. Furthermore, this study suggests that failure of periderm formation underlies a series of devastating birth defects, including popliteal pterygium syndrome, cocoon syndrome, and Bartsocas-Papas syndrome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3891-3900
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Clinical Investigation
Volume124
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Sep 2014

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