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A visible-light photoinduced fragmentation borylation of O-phthalimido cycloalkanols with bis(catecholato)diboron is described. Structurally diverse keto and formyloxy alkyl boronic esters are shown to be conveniently prepared by radical-mediated ring opening of cyclic alcohols and hemiacetals, respectively. The reactions proceed under mild conditions in the absence of additives or photocatalysts, display excellent functional group tolerance, and are shown to allow cleavage of 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-membered ring substrates. The mechanism proceeds via sequential homolytic N–O and C–C bond cleavages, the latter of which involves β-scission of an alkoxy radical, generating a carbonyl and an alkyl radical that is trapped by the diboron reagent. Spectroscopic studies suggest direct photoexcitation of either the phthalimide or diboron substrates with blue light can initiate a radical chain mechanism.