Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

James Yarmolinsky, Natália Bordin Barbieri, Tobias Weinmann, Patricia K Ziegelmann, Bruce B Duncan, Maria Inês Schmidt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)

265 Downloads (Pure)


An emerging body of evidence has implicated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), though findings have not always been consistent. We systematically reviewed epidemiological studies examining the association of PAI-1 with T2D. EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify studies for inclusion. Fifty-two studies (44 cross-sectional with 47 unique analytical comparisons and 8 prospective) were included. In pooled random-effects analyses of prospective studies, a comparison of the top third vs. bottom third of baseline PAI-1 values generated a RR of T2D of 1.67 (95% CI 1.28-2.18) with moderate heterogeneity (I(2) = 38%). Additionally, of 47 cross-sectional comparisons, 34(72%) reported significantly elevated PAI-1 among diabetes cases versus controls, 2(4%) reported significantly elevated PAI-1 among controls, and 11(24%) reported null effects. Results from pooled analyses of prospective studies did not differ substantially by study design, length of follow-up, adjustment for various putative confounding factors, or study quality, and were robust to sensitivity analyses. Findings from this systematic review of the available epidemiological literature support a link between PAI-1 and T2D, independent of established diabetes risk factors. Given the moderate size of the association and heterogeneity across studies, future prospective studies are warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number17714
Number of pages13
JournalScientific Reports
Publication statusPublished - 27 Jan 2016

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this