In 1980, public health researchers working in the United Republic of Cameroon detected a startling trend among children diagnosed with paralytic polio. Some of the children had become paralyzed in the limb that had only weeks before received an inoculation against a common pediatric illness. Further studies emerging from India seemed to corroborate the association. Health professionals discussed the significance of the findings and debated whether they were due to coincidence or due to the provocation of polio from immunizations. The theory of ‘polio provocation’ was of historical significance and had been hotly contested by doctors and public health officials many decades earlier.